Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Food and Beverage Management 01

1)      Explain the key social skills you would look for when considering appointing a new member of the bar staff
People go to bars not just to drink but to be entertained so a new barman would have to be pleasant, chatty and outgoing. People in the bar are not just selling drinks they are selling an image so they have to look the part. They have to be well presented and smart. Even though most establishments are offering uniforms for their staff it is still up to the person in question to maintain that uniform in excellent condition. The ideal barman would have to know about drinks and that knowledge comes from people who are actually drinkers and enjoy a glass from time to time but not too much otherwise problems might arise. Also bar staff has to be interested in their craft and experiment with drinks to make new cocktails and present drinks in new and attractive ways. Experience in this job just like in every other department is essential.

The bar is the place where the establishment can lose a lot of money if the people working there are dishonest and have a mind to make extra pocket money by misseling the products so the character check will have to be twice as thorough and references will have to be produced and followed up at all times.

2)      What are the key attributes of staff working within the stores area?
There are two types of activities taking place in the stores area: store keeping and stocks control. Store keeping is basically the handling and storing of the supplies that the hotel needs and stock control is keeping records of goods received and goods used. Store keeping involves a lot of manual labor so personnel must be fit and have a keen sense of space. Stock control people must have an eye for details and be very careful. In large units store keeping and stock control are two separate departments that work together but report to different people. The reasons for that are plenty. For starters manual workers cannot be expected to be expert record keepers and keeping stock control and storage staff separate means less chances from either side for pilferage and stealing. People working within the store areas have to be trustworthy, honest and hard working. Loses from pilferage in a hotel is a very real problem. Petty theft unfortunately is very common in the hotel industry because it is so easy to achieve and the temptation is great.

3)      Identify the exemptions from the specified holding requirements established by the Food Hygiene Amendment Regulations.
According to the food hygiene amendment regulations, food exempt from specified holding requirements are:
i.         Pastries and pies sold on the same or the very next day of their manufacture
ii.       Preserved foods but not the ones that were vacuum packed
iii.      Food that doesn't endanger the public' s health
iv.     Food that needs room temperature to ripen or mature
v.       Food that may not be displayed for more than 4 hours outside a freezer or without being cooked, otherwise they run the danger or being contaminated and spoiled and have to be disposed of.

4)      What is the minimum temperature for hot food and how long may it be kept at that temperature during any one period of service?
Minimum temperature that hot food can be held is 63o Celcius. Food is allowed to be kept at ambient temperature for 2 hours.

5)      Why do kitchens use a different colored system and what is it’s use?
Kitchens use different color coded kitchenware to avoid cross contamination that may occur when for example a piece of meat infected with staphylococcus is used to chop something else as well without properly cleaning it first. There are no legal guidelines on which foods should be cut on which color boards but the accepted coding system in the UK is this:
i.         Yellow - cooked meats
ii.       Red - uncooked meats
iii.      White - Bread and dairy products such as cheese
iv.     Blue - raw fish
v.       Green - salad and fruit
vi.     Brown - raw vegetables, definitely those grown within the soil

Some kitchens use knives with the same plastic color coding in the handle to increase safety. While color coding is a first defense line for good hygiene, it is still good practice for a board to be washed in hot water and sanitized when a different food product of a similar type is being cut up.

6)      Write a detailed account of each of the main types of food poisoning bacteria, highlighting foods susceptible to contamination by each.
Campylobacter: Can be found in poultry red meat, fresh milk and water. The symptoms from this type of food poisoning include diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps.

Salmonella: Can be found in mammals and birds and especially in eggs (frozen, fresh or dried) uncooked meat and poultry and pre - cooked foodstuffs such as sausages, ham etc and dairy products. It is extremely common especially during hot seasons. However the bacteria cannot stand heat for extensive periods, (30 minutes in temperatures above 100o should be enough to destroy it. Food that is likely to develop salmonella should be prepared immediately. Modern methods of refrigeration and pasteurization have reduced cases of this infection but still it appears from time to time. Symptoms of this food poisoning are abdominal pain, fever, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting. When there is an outbreak of salmonella, it is necessary to discover the source (infected animal, poultry, human etc) and make sure it is treated to avoid repeat appearance of the bacteria.

Clostridium: Can be found in meat (large joints usually) stews and large quantities of gravy. Clostridium perfringers in a spore found in the intestines of animals and doesn't require air therefore can survive in sealed containers etc. It is also resistant of high temperatures. Poisoning may be caused by infected meat and vegetables. Bacteria might contaminate crops and soil when sewage are used as fertilizers. Symptoms are abdominal pain and diarrhea.

E coli: Can be found in minced beef that hasn' t been cooked properly and fresh milk. Ways to get infected include direct contact with sick animals and ailing people and by contact with soil contaminated by animal droppings. Symptoms include bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps. But the illness can became serious and occasionally kidney failure and anemia are named as symptoms as well.

Staphylococcus: Can be found in dairy products, milk, meats and cream. The bacteria can resist heat pretty well. Because of this special caution is necessary to avoid contamination. Food must be cooked properly and if not consumed immediately placed in a refrigerator. If food is reheated it should be at a temperature strong enough to destroy any bacteria. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and low body temperature.

Listeria Monocytogenes: Can be found in soft cheeses and all types of pate. Unlike other types of bacteria this one can multiply in a refrigerator. It can be killed by cooking foods properly. People are not in immediate danger by this bacteria however it affects pregnant women, newborn children and elderly people. Other groups of susceptible people are those with cancer of the lymphatic system and leukemia and those who have reduced resistance to infections and suppress their immune systems.

7)      Write an account of the provision, positioning and maintenance of sanitary facilities foe employees in catering establishments.
According to law, management is obliged to provide staff with sanitary facilities for their personal use. These are usually separate from the ones that the customers of the establishment are using. Water closets have to be furnished with wash hand basins soap and drying tools (towels or hand drying machines).

The rooms allocated for sanitary facilities must not be close to the food storage rooms, the linen storage rooms, or the kitchen. Also they must be separate from the area where cooking utensils and equipment is cleaned and stored.

Sanitary facilities for personnel must be kept well ventilated, clean and well maintained. Usually companies who employ both sexes are obliged to have separate facilities for each sex. After all people who come in contact with food must always be careful so as to avoid spreading diseases.

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